This tutorial will walk you through the steps to create an JSON AJAX driven website.  This tutorial is very similar to the original AJAX Web Chat tutorial that I wrote back in November of 2005, but instead of passing the message data back as XML, we will be using JSON.

Download The JSON AJAX Chat Source Code
View AJAX Web Chat in Action

I just recently discovered the joys of JSON after reading about it for months.  As the SecretGeek puts it:
  1. Two months ago you'd never heard of JSON
  2. One month ago you'd heard the term but paid no attention
  3. One week ago you'd heard it mentioned a few times and started to think, right... some more crap to learn
  4. Today you woke up with an alarm bell ringing in the back of your mind that said WHAT THE BLOODY HELL IS THIS JSON THING AND WHY IS IT EVERYWHERE ALL OF A BLOODY SUDDEN!
So what is JSON?  JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation and is basically a lightweight way of describing hierarchical data.  Since it is so lightweight, it makes it an ideal candidate for AJAX applications.  So what does JSON look like.  The JSON code our JSON AJAX Chat application will be returning will look something like this:

{"id": "17",
"user": "Ryan Smith",
"text": "This is an example of JSON",
"time": "04:41"
},{"id": "18",
"user": "Ryan Smith",
"text": "Here is another Element",
"time": "04:41"
} ]
As you can tell, it looks a lot like structured data - and it is.  This same data structure might be represented with XML like:
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<message id="17">
<user>Ryan Smith</user>
<text>This is an example of JSON</text>
<message id="18">
<user>Ryan Smith</user>
<text>Here is another Element</text>
There are some other cool things you can do with JSON link making embedded JavaScript calls, but they are beyond the scope of this tutorial. 

Creating the Chat Tables
So lets get on with it.  The first thing that we need to do is to setup our database table.  We really only need one table that holds the messages, but I keep thinking one day I'll expand this tutorial in to a full AJAX chat system, so we'll add both tables for now. 
--Chat Table
`chat_name` VARCHAR(64) DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`chat_id`)
--Message Table
CREATE TABLE `message` (
`chat_id` INT(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0',
`user_id` INT(11) NOT NULL DEFAULT '0',
`user_name` VARCHAR(64) DEFAULT NULL,
`message` TEXT,
PRIMARY KEY (`message_id`)
The first table 'chat' won't be necessary for this tutorial.  The second table message will hold our list of messages that are sent from our JSON AJAX Chat web page.  It basically consists of who sent the message,  when they sent it, and what the message was.  The field chat_id would be used if you wanted to have more than one chat session.
Code Sidebar

The HTML Skeleton

Now that we have created our database tables, we need to create our HTML Skeleton.  This is a very basic layout that could easily be made to look nicer with CSS, but we're not concerned with looks right now.  We just want the basic functionality.

For the sake of the demo, we'll just put the necessary CSS style information on the HTML page in a style tag.  In a production environment, you should place your CSS into an external file for caching benefits, especially when you start having lots of CSS rules.

We will also place our JavaScript on the HTML page in a script tag for the sake of the demo.  We will write that in just a few minutes.

Our basic HTML page will look like:
<title>JSON AJAX Driven Web Chat</title>
<style type="text/css" media="screen"></style>
<script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript"></script>
<h2>AJAX Driven Web Chat.</h2>
<p id="p_status">Status: Normal</p>
Current Chitter-Chatter:
<div id="div_chat" class="chat_main">

<form id="frmmain" name="frmmain" onsubmit="">
<input type="button" name="btn_get_chat" id="btn_get_chat" value="Refresh Chat" />
<input type="button" name="btn_reset_chat" id="btn_reset_chat" value="Reset Chat" /><br />
<input type="text" id="txt_message" name="txt_message" style="width: 447px;" />
<input type="button" name="btn_send_chat" id="btn_send_chat" value="Send" />


As you can see we have a simple header that is just a title, a paragraph where we can display status messages in the event of any errors, and a main DIV for displaying the chit-chat.

We also have an HTML form with 4 HTML control elements.  We have a refresh button to restart the JavaScript timer in the event of an error.  This button should only be for test purposes.  We have a button to reset the chat which will clear all the messages off the screen.  Finally, a text area and a button to send a new chat message to the server.

In the HTML, we have one inline CSS class on the text box to expand its width, and one CSS class on the main DIV that hasn't been defined yet.

The undefined CSS class will look like:
overflow: auto; 
height: 300px;
width: 500px;
background-color: #CCCCCC;
border: 1px solid #555555;
All these values should be pretty self explanatory with the exception of "overflow".  The overflow: auto; attribute allow the DIV to behave somewhat like an IFrame in the sense that when the content is larger than the DIV's size, scrollbars will be provided rather than expanding the dimensions.  I try to never use IFrames because search engines have a hard time indexing them.  Plus I started web programming in a time when not all browsers supported IFrames so you couldn't use them anyway.

The JavaScript
Now onto the AJAX!  It's time to write all the magic code that makes AJAX so neat.  We'll start with my favorite piece of AJAX code.
//Gets the browser specific XmlHttpRequest Object
function getXmlHttpRequestObject() {
if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
return new XMLHttpRequest();
} else if(window.ActiveXObject) {
return new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
} else {
document.getElementById('p_status').innerHTML =
'Status: Cound not create XmlHttpRequest Object.' +
'Consider upgrading your browser.'
This simply returns a browser specific XmlHttpRequest object - the basis for AJAX functionality.  The XmlHttpRequest object allows us to make asynchronous requests to the web server without refreshing the page. 

IE uses an ActiveX object where Firefox and most of the other browsers out there use a native object.  IE 7 allows the use of both a native object and the ActiveX object which would eliminate the need for this block of code, however people will be using IE 6 for many years to come so you better get use to writing this.

We can now use this code to create a browser specific XmlHttpRequest object anywhere in our page.

Lets start out by adding four global variables to the top of our page. 
var sendReq = getXmlHttpRequestObject();
var receiveReq = getXmlHttpRequestObject();
var lastMessage = 0;
var mTimer;
We need two XmlHttpRequest objects - one for sending new chat messages and one for receiving chat messages.  We also need a variable to store the last message we have received to avoid sending the entire message list each time, and a timer to periodically poll the server for new messages.  We place the auto refresh timer in a global variable so that we can clear out the setTimeout at any point to avoid having more than one timer running at once.

Now let's add the function to make the call to receive the most recent messages on the server.
//Gets the current messages from the server
function getChatText() {
if (receiveReq.readyState == 4 || receiveReq.readyState == 0) {
receiveReq.open("GET", 'getChat.php?chat=1&last=' + lastMessage, true);
receiveReq.onreadystatechange = handleReceiveChat;
The first line of code in the function checks to make sure our XmlHttpRequest object is not currently in the middle of a different request.  0 is uninitiated and 4 is complete.  Any other readyState is in the middle of a request.

The next line setups up the connection to the server:
receiveReq.open("GET", 'getChat.php?chat=1&last=' + lastMessage, true);
Since we aren't sending much data a standard HTTP "GET" will be fine.  When we send the message later you will see how to create an AJAX request using a HTTP "POST"

The second parameter is the URL we want to make the AJAX request to.  Notice that we are passing a parameter in the URL querystring that contains the last message we received as well as the chat session that we want messages for.  The chat parameter is hard coded as a 1, but if we wanted to have more than one chat room, we could make this a dynamic parameter based on which chat session we were in.

The last parameter, "true", is a flag used to mark if the request is asynchronous or not.  We don't really need this parameter because by default it is asynchronous, but will explicitly set it anyway.

The next line sets the call back function that will get executed every time the the XmlHttpRequest objects readyState changes.
receiveReq.onreadystatechange = handleReceiveChat;
We will simply set this to a function we will write in just a minute.

The third and file line makes the actual AJAX request to the server.  The null value parameter is where you could pass additional values to the server if this was an HTTP POST request as you will see later.

The Client Side JSON
Now we are going to create the function that handles the AJAX server response.  This function is also where we get to see JSON in action.
function handleReceiveChat() {
if (receiveReq.readyState == 4) {
//Get a reference to our chat container div for easy access
var chat_div = document.getElementById('div_chat');
//Get the AJAX response and run the JavaScript evaluation function
//on it to turn it into a usable object. Notice since we are passing
//in the JSON value as a string we need to wrap it in parentheses
var response = eval("(" + receiveReq.responseText + ")");
for(i=0;i < response.messages.message.length; i++) {
chat_div.innerHTML += response.messages.message[i].user;
chat_div.innerHTML += '&nbsp;&nbsp;<font class="chat_time">' + response.messages.message[i].time + '</font><br />';
chat_div.innerHTML += response.messages.message[i].text + '<br />';
chat_div.scrollTop = chat_div.scrollHeight;
lastMessage = response.messages.message[i].id;
mTimer = setTimeout('getChatText();',2000); //Refresh our chat in 2 seconds
This function will fire every time the XmlHttpRequest object's readyState changes, not just when it is complete, so we need to check to make sure the readyState = 4 which is complete. 

The first line simply gets a reference to DIV that holds all of our chat messages.  We are simply doing this so we don't have to reference the DIV with document.getElementById each time.

The next line is the really cool part, and is the reason I will be using JSON for AJAX in the future rather than XML.  With JSON, we can use JavaScript's built-in eval() function to create a usable object that we can reference with "dot" notation.  Check out the AJAX Chat Tutorial with XML to see how this would be done using XML instead.
var response = eval("(" + receiveReq.responseText + ")");
What is happening here is the JSON response is transformed into an object with child arrays using the eval() function.  The receiveReq.responseText gets the string returned from the AJAX request.  The other option would be responseXML, which would return an XML DOM object.

Notice that since we are passing in the responseText to the eval function as a string we need to wrap it in parentheses.  Otherwise this would throw an error - it certainly got me more than once.

Now that we have our AJAX response data stored in a usable JavaScript object, we can loop through each of the messages provided and update our chat DIV.

Let's take one more look at the format our JSON response will be in:
{"id": "17",
"user": "Ryan Smith",
"text": "This is an example of JSON",
"time": "04:41"
},{"id": "18",
"user": "Ryan Smith",
"text": "Here is another Element",
"time": "04:41"
} ]
As you can see we have a "Root" messages object followed by a message element with X number of message values.  JSON key value pairs are seperated by colons (:), and their values are wrapped in quotes.  I think you only need to wrap the value in quotes if it contains spaces or special characters, but for good practice, we will just wrap everything in quotes.

Since we have this data represented as a JavaScript object, we can access its values including the length of message values through standard JavaScript dot notation.
for(i=0;i < response.messages.message.length; i++) { 
This line loops through each element.  The next three lines add the message values to our chat DIV.
chat_div.innerHTML += response.messages.message[i].user;
chat_div.innerHTML += '&nbsp;&nbsp;<font class="chat_time">' + response.messages.message[i].time + '</font><br />';
chat_div.innerHTML += response.messages.message[i].text + '<br />';
Notice how we can access our values through .user .time and .message rather than some complicated getElementByTag call required with XML.

The next line is a nice little usability addition that automatically scrolls our DIV to the bottom so the most recent message is always visible - thanks for this one Eric.
chat_div.scrollTop = chat_div.scrollHeight;
Finally, we set the last message we received using the same JSON functionality as we did to populate the chat DIV:
lastMessage = response.messages.message[i].id;
Once we finally fall out of our message loop, we will reset the time to check for any new messages in 2 seconds.  Depending on your server load, you may want to throttle this even more, although the amount of data being sent down the pipe is fairly minimal - probably never never more than 10K.
mTimer = setTimeout('getChatText();',2000); //Refresh our chat in 2 seconds 

Sending a Message

Next we need to write the code to send a message to the server.  We will send our message as an HTTP "POST" rather than a "GET" this time since we will be sending larger amounts of data.  URL's only support a couple of thousand characters on older browsers, and the RFC for URL's state you should try to not go over 255 characters.  This will keep us from getting into trouble with any long messages getting sent.

Creating a POST AJAX request isn't that much different that creating an AJAX GET request.
//Add a message to the chat server.
function sendChatText() {
if (sendReq.readyState == 4 || sendReq.readyState == 0) {
sendReq.open("POST", 'getChat.php?chat=1&last=' + lastMessage, true);
sendReq.onreadystatechange = handleSendChat;
var param = 'message=' + document.getElementById('txt_message').value;
param += '&name=Ryan Smith';
param += '&chat=1';
document.getElementById('txt_message').value = '';
As you can see, it's basically the same code, but instead of passing the parameters in the URL, we pass them when we call the XmlHttpRequest.send method and mark our method as a POST when we initialize the request.
		var param = 'message=' + document.getElementById('txt_message').value;
param += '&name=Ryan Smith';
param += '&chat=1';
The parameters are & spaced just like in a URL query string.  We are passing three values to the server, our message text, our name, and the chat session we are currently in - which is currently hard coded to my name and 1 for the sake of this tutorial.

Our callback function for this AJAX request is extreamly basic. 
//When our message has been sent, update our page.
function handleSendChat() {
//Clear out the existing timer so we don't have
//multiple timer instances running.
All we are doing is clearing out the old timer and starting an AJAX request for new messages with the function we already wrote.

Resetting the Chat
We now have everything we need in our HTML and JavaScript to send message back and forth from the server.  The only thing left for us to do is add the ability to reset the chat.  In a real implementation, you would probably want to have have the server "prune" the messages every so often rather than give the user the ability to clear it out.
//This cleans out the database so we can start a new chat session.
function resetChat() {
if (sendReq.readyState == 4 || sendReq.readyState == 0) {
sendReq.open("POST", 'getChat.php?chat=1&last=' + lastMessage, true);
sendReq.onreadystatechange = handleResetChat;
var param = 'action=reset';
document.getElementById('txt_message').value = '';
This function is essentially the same as sending the message, but instead of sending the message as a parameter, we are sending an action parameter to reset the chat.

The callback to this function is also very similar to handleSendChat with the addition of clearing out the text (innerHTML) of our chat DIV.

The last thing we need to do to our HTML page it to add onclick handlers to our HTML buttons.
<input type="button" name="btn_get_chat" id="btn_get_chat" value="Refresh Chat" onclick="javascript:getChatText();" />
<input type="button" name="btn_reset_chat" id="btn_reset_chat" value="Reset Chat" onclick="javascript:resetChat();" /><br />
<input type="text" id="txt_message" name="txt_message" style="width: 447px;" />
<input type="button" name="btn_send_chat" id="btn_send_chat" value="Send" onclick="javascript:sendChatText();" />
Each button gets pointed to its corresponding JavaScript function.

The Backend
This tutorial will use PHP and MySQL as the backend, but this could easily be modified to use any server-side language (ASP, ASP.NET, JSP, CFM, RoR, etc.).  The response is a simple text response so the choice of language is pretty much up to personal preference.

We only need the one page since all of our AJAX requests go to the same page.  They are then sorted out based on the parameters sent in the response.

The first thing the backend file does is create some HTTP headers to keep the users browsers from caching the response. 
//Send some headers to keep the user's browser from caching the response.
header("Expires: Mon, 26 Jul 1997 05:00:00 GMT" );
header("Last-Modified: " . gmdate( "D, d M Y H:i:s" ) . "GMT" );
header("Cache-Control: no-cache, must-revalidate" );
header("Pragma: no-cache" );
header("Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8");
Probably the most important header is the first "Expires" header.  You can see we set it to a date that has already passed.  Without this header, IE tends to cache the response regardless of the other headers.

The other header we send is the Content-Type.  We don't really need this since we're sending plain text.  This would be much more important if we were sending XML like the original AJAX Chat Tutorial.

The next line includes a file that contains our database functions.  I like to abstract my database functions in a seperate file in case I need to change by database connection type (MSSQL, Oracle, etc.).
This file can be changed to connect to pretty much any database type with some simple changes to the file.

The first action we perform is to see if a new message was sent in our POST parameters.
//Check to see if a message was sent.
if(isset($_POST['message']) && $_POST['message'] != '') {
$sql = "INSERT INTO message(chat_id, user_id, user_name, message, post_time) VALUES (" .
db_input($_GET['chat']) . ", 1, '" . db_input($_POST['name']) .
"', '" . db_input($_POST['message']) . "', NOW())";
If a new message was set, then we create a SQL INSERT statement to add the message to the database.  We use the function db_input - which is included in the database.php file to escape any quotes or other dangerous SQL that may have been entered by the user. 

You should always cleanse user input before you execute SQL statements with it.  Acutally you should be using stored procedures or prepared statements, but that's a little beyond the scope of what we're doing here.

Finally we execute the query to add the new message to the database.

Next we check to see if a reset action was sent in our POST parameters.  If it was we will delete all of the messages with the give chat_id. 
//Check to see if a reset request was sent.
if(isset($_POST['action']) && $_POST['action'] == 'reset') {
$sql = "DELETE FROM message WHERE chat_id = " . db_input($_GET['chat']);
Obviously if this were a production system you would want to have some security built around this to keep others from deleting messages in chat sessions they didn't belong to, but since this is just a proof of concept, we're not going to worry about it.

Creating the Response
Once we have performed any INSERTS or DELETES to the system, it's time to create our JSON response.

The first thing we'll do is create our JSON root element since this will always be sent back to the server.
//Create the JSON response.
$json = '{"messages": {';
Next, we will check to make sure we recieved a chat room in our request. 
//Check to ensure the user is in a chat room.
if(!isset($_GET['chat'])) {
$json .= '"message":[ {';
$json .= '"id": "0",
"user": "Admin",
"text": "You are not currently in a chat session. &lt;a href=""&gt;Enter a chat session here&lt;/a&gt;",
"time": "'
. date('h:i') . '"
If we didn't we will send a response informing them they need to enter one before they can receive any messages.  Once again, in a real system you would want to do security checks here to ensure the user has permissions to access the chat room.

If we did receive a chat room id then we will run a SQL query to see if any new messages have been added since the last request.
} else {
$last = (isset($_GET['last']) && $_GET['last'] != '') ? $_GET['last'] : 0;
$sql = "SELECT message_id, user_name, message, date_format(post_time, '%h:%i') as post_time" .
" FROM message WHERE chat_id = " . db_input($_GET['chat']) . " AND message_id > " . $last;
$message_query = db_query($sql);
If we didn't receive a "last" parameter, we will assume that the user hasn't received any messages yet and set this value to zero.

If there are any messages the user hasn't received yet, we will loop through each one and create a JSON message for each. 
//Loop through each message and create an XML message node for each.
if(db_num_rows($message_query) > 0) {
$json .= '"message":[ ';
while($message_array = db_fetch_array($message_query)) {
$json .= '{';
$json .= '"id": "' . $message_array['message_id'] . '",
"user": "'
. htmlspecialchars($message_array['user_name']) . '",
"text": "'
. htmlspecialchars($message_array['message']) . '",
"time": "'
. $message_array['post_time'] . '"
$json .= ']';
As you can see we simply create a message object and assign it the values from the database.

If there were no new messages, then we need to create an empty message object for our JSON response to avoid JavaScript errors when we test for the length of messages sent back.
	} else {
//Send an empty message to avoid a Javascript error when we check for message lenght in the loop.
$json .= '"message":[]';
The last thing we need to do is close out the JSON data structure and send the response back to the server.
//Close our response
$json .= '}}';
echo $json;
We are now ready to test out our JSON AJAX Driven Web Chat.
Be sure that you have already created the database tables and set the correct database connection values in database.php

Usability Additions
You should now have a semi-functioning JSON AJAX chat application.  I'm going to point you over to the Usability Additions of the Original AJAX Driven Web Chat Tutorial because it is the same as I would write here and I should really get back to real work.

I hope you enjoyed this introduction to JSON and AJAX and hope to post more tutorials soon.